bird attacks on humans

Read our full mailing list consent terms here. Angry Birds Attacking People - Why Birds are Evil - YouTube The vigor with which a bird defends its territory depends on the species. Or maybe they're just sadistic and they kind of get a thrill out of attacking humans. How the pandemic has changed the world economy, The paper that helped the homeless. In Vancouver there is a website called CrowTrax where people can log these incidents which are then put on an online map. Canuck the crow's attacks halt Vancouver mail delivery, Cyclist 'repeatedly attacked' by Staffordshire bird of prey, Long watch: Is this Russian cult leader a fraud? Yes, birds attack humans everyday. Please continue to respect all commenters and create constructive debates. He added: “As available nest sites become harder to find due to habitat loss, it’s likely that these interactions between diligent bird parents and humans will increase”. Results were collected from 420,489 British birdspotters, {{#verifyErrors}} {{message}} {{/verifyErrors}} {{^verifyErrors}} {{message}} {{/verifyErrors}}, Bird attacks on humans becoming more common, experts warn, Dying birds fall from sky ‘screaming and bleeding from their eyes’, Ancient bird with toe longer than its leg is first of its kind, Cockatoo filmed tearing down anti-bird spikes at shopping centre, You may not agree with our views, or other users’, but please respond to them respectfully, Swearing, personal abuse, racism, sexism, homophobia and other discriminatory or inciteful language is not acceptable, Do not impersonate other users or reveal private information about third parties, We reserve the right to delete inappropriate posts and ban offending users without notification. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Like Dr Portugal, she said this was largely caused by humans encroaching on bird habitats. After a postal carrier was repeatedly attacked by a famed crow known as Canuck, Canada Post stopped delivering mail to several homes in Vancouver, citing the danger to its employees. Joggers in Denver, Colorado, have been waving their arms above their heads as they run, in order to prevent their scalps from being strafed by red-winged blackbirds. Australia believes Tse Chi Lop's syndicate controls up to 70% of narcotics entering the country. The existing Open Comments threads will continue to exist for those who do not subscribe to Independent Premium. Start your Independent Premium subscription today. She also believes people are more aware of these interactions because they are being shared on social media. Create a commenting name to join the debate, There are no Independent Premium comments yet - be the first to add your thoughts, There are no comments yet - be the first to add your thoughts. Bird attacks on people are getting more common according to wildlife experts who say the creatures are particularly likely to dive bomb those straying onto their territory at this time of year. The hawk is a bird which generally does not attack humans. … by Roaring Earth Staff. A cassowary, a giant bird with long claws on each foot, killed its owner after he fell in the backyard of his Gainesville, Florida, home, officials told CNN. First Chinese gold miner rescued after two weeks, In pictures: Defiant Russians rally for opposition, The man who invited the world over for dinner. Red-winged blackbirds are not afraid to dive-bomb at joggers Bird attacks on humans are growing more common as people continue to encroach on bird nesting territory, wildlife experts warn. Are you sure you want to mark this comment as inappropriate? Attacks on people, livestock, and pets may occur when a puma habituates to humans or is in a condition of severe starvation. Earlier this year, Tom Ellis from Prestatyn in Wales was advised by the council to put up umbrellas to prevent sea gulls from mobbing him around his home. Birds such as cassowaries, hawks, and owls can leave us bloodied and scarred if we aren’t careful. A human target may be disemboweled or battered to death in seconds. Many birds of prey and seabirds will defend their eggs and young against intruders, Down one place on last year. In the wild, cassowaries are solitary and they tend to avoid humans whenever possible, silently vanishing into the shadows of their rain forest homes long before humans stumble into their paths. His website has tracked more than 5,000 reports, and he has noticed a slight increase in this past year. Startled ostriches usually run – reaching speeds of 43 miles per hour – or flatten themselves close to the ground; but when their territory or young are threatened, they may attack humans. With the reputation of being the largest bird on earth, an African Ostrich is … The average adult human is less than half the size of an adult moa, and a human child would probably have been a mere snack. In New Guinea, the birds are sometimes used for food, so they may naturally view humans as a threat. .css-1xgx53b-Link{font-family:ReithSans,Helvetica,Arial,freesans,sans-serif;font-weight:700;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;color:#FFFFFF;}.css-1xgx53b-Link:hover,.css-1xgx53b-Link:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}Read about our approach to external linking. 15 Insane Animal Attacks on Humans Caught on Film. "It's just startling when it happens.". © 2021 BBC. Attacks on humans are very rare, as cougar prey recognition is a learned behavior and they do not generally recognize humans as prey. Experts say that the easiest way to end a bird attack is to simply leave the area of their nest and they will stop bothering you. .css-1ty7601-HeadlineContainer{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-align-items:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;-webkit-box-pack:center;-webkit-justify-content:center;-ms-flex-pack:center;justify-content:center;width:100%;font-size:1rem;line-height:1.375rem;}.css-ftbx47-Heading{width:100%;}Asia's 'El Chapo' arrested in Amsterdam.css-2nuv1h-Rank{font-size:1.5rem;line-height:1.75rem;font-weight:normal;padding-left:0.75rem;color:#B80000;}@media (min-width:37.5rem){.css-2nuv1h-Rank{font-size:2rem;line-height:2.25rem;}}1, A man who invited the world over for dinner2, First Chinese gold miner rescued after two weeks3, In pictures: Defiant Russians rally for opposition4, Star Wars supports host Arielle after racist abuse5, PM talks to Biden in first call since inauguration6, Viewpoint: Africa no longer needs lectures from the US7, Minister who promoted 'Covid syrup' tests positive8, The homeless addict who became a history professor9, Larry King, veteran talk show host, dies aged 8710. Human blood, though, isn’t enough for survival. It's also a problem outside the US. “Can you send an ambulance? Ostriches have massive leg bones and hoof-like, pointed nails extending several inches. Andrea Jones, director of bird conservation at the US National Audubon Society told BBC that attacks were definitely rising. Before she knew what was happening, the bird "body slams you in the back of the head, flies around frantically and then goes back in the bush", .css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:link{color:#3F3F42;}.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:link,.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:visited{font-weight:700;border-bottom:1px solid #BABABA;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:link:hover,.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:visited:hover,.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:link:focus,.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:visited:focus{border-bottom-color:currentcolor;border-bottom-width:2px;color:#B80000;}@supports (text-underline-offset:0.25em){.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:link,.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:visited{border-bottom:none;-webkit-text-decoration:underline #BABABA;text-decoration:underline #BABABA;-webkit-text-decoration-thickness:1px;text-decoration-thickness:1px;-webkit-text-decoration-skip-ink:none;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;text-underline-offset:0.25em;}.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:link:hover,.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:visited:hover,.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:link:focus,.css-1xgj2ad-InlineLink:visited:focus{-webkit-text-decoration-color:currentcolor;text-decoration-color:currentcolor;-webkit-text-decoration-thickness:2px;text-decoration-thickness:2px;color:#B80000;}}she told the Denver Post. The most insightful comments on all subjects will be published daily in dedicated articles. Many birds of prey and seabirds are defending their eggs and young against intruders, according to Dr Steve Portugal, an ecophysiologist from Royal Holloway University of London. The paper that helped the homeless. Even though bird mites need the blood of birds to complete their life cycle and survive, they can bite humans. Bird attacks on humans are growing more common as people continue to encroach on bird nesting territory, wildlife experts warn. What's more, the raptors are known to dive-bomb humans when they feel threatened, almost always targeting the head. African Ostrich. Long watch: Is this Russian cult leader a fraud? It allows our most engaged readers to debate the big issues, share their own experiences, discuss real-world solutions, and more. Kofron, C. … Thus we can say that yes, hawk attacks humans but in rare cases. Arguably the most dangerous local bird that may attack you this spring, Canada (not Canadian) geese have a long history… Crow attacks have grown so frequent in Vancouver, British Columbia, that one repeated victim started a website called CrowTrax for people to report violent incidents. Due to the sheer scale of this comment community, we are not able to give each post the same level of attention, but we have preserved this area in the interests of open debate. During Ms Jones' time studying common terns on a beach island in Massachusetts, she was frequently attacked by a noisy dive-bombing squawking swarm, and took to wearing a hat with plastic flowers attached since birds typically attack the highest part of their target. Attacks to humans and domestic animals by the southern cassowary (Casuarius casuarius johnsonii) in Queensland, Australia. Mary Heiman was walking her dog around a lake in downtown Denver, Colorado, in late July when a bird started flying uncomfortably close to her head. "It's funny," she said. Walk close to a Barn Swallow nest with young ones and you’ll know what I mean. ‘As available nest sites become harder to find these interactions will increase,’ says Dr Steve Portugal, Find your bookmarks in your Independent Premium section, under my profile. Nesting birds are very defensive of their chicks - "like a mama bear", she says - and will even attack animals much larger than themselves. ... A 26 year old American ended up in a South African hostpital after suffering a savage attack at the hands of angry chimpanzees. Due to the expanding human population, cougar ranges increasingly overlap with areas inhabited by humans. Andrea Jones, the director of bird conservation for the California chapter of environmental organisation National Audubon Society, says attacks are definitely rising. But they also … Want an ad-free experience?Subscribe to Independent Premium. Our journalists will try to respond by joining the threads when they can to create a true meeting of independent Premium. And one thing is certain - there's no need to fear the murderous avian swarms as depicted in Alfred Hitchcock's classic horror film The Birds. Alachua, Fla. — A large, flightless bird called the world's "most dangerous" attacked and killed its owner when the man fell on his farm in Florida, authorities said Saturday. For example, in 2015, there were repeated Barred Owl attacks on joggers in a park in Salem, Oregon. Birds are also less likely to attack if you keep them away from your line of sight. “Great Skuas in particular are renowned for dive-bombing anyone that gets too close to the nest, and colonies of Arctic Terns will protect their babies by aggressively mobbing any intruders," he told The Independent. CrowTrax O’Leary responded in the only way a GIS instructor could: by making a map. However, these attacks – which normally happen when the bird flies into someone’s back or pecks at their head – are unlikely to cause injury. However, without any confirmed records of Haast’s eagle attacks prior to its extinction, we’ll never know for sure. Please be respectful when making a comment and adhere to our Community Guidelines. This slow-mo video of a magpie swooping a cyclist three times is both amazing and terrifying at the same time 😱🚴📹: Luke Berkelmans pic.twitter.com/ZiGrENok9a. According to Scientific American, cassowaries have been known to attack people who get too close to their nests, chicks, or feeding grounds, which is understandable. Long watch: Is this Russian cult leader a fraud? Video. VideoThe paper that helped the homeless, The homeless addict who became a history professor, How India calculates value of women's housework, The deadly ingredient smuggled onto US menus, Viewpoint: Africa no longer needs lectures from the US, Tunisians question whether life is better after Arab Spring. Clulow says the birds are fierce, but they won't bully you without reason. During Australia's "swooping season" Aussies share tips for how to avoid being attacked by magpie, including wearing an empty tub of ice cream on your head with eyes drawn on in hopes of confusing the birds. The study, which analyzed 150 cassowary attacks against humans that had occurred in Queensland, Australia, found 75% were cassowaries that … Are you sure you want to delete this comment? Video, A man who invited the world over for dinner, Star Wars supports host Arielle after racist abuse, PM talks to Biden in first call since inauguration, Minister who promoted 'Covid syrup' tests positive, Larry King, veteran talk show host, dies aged 87, Bird of prey delivers 'almighty slap' to jogger's head. This has been seen during the nesting period only in order to save the young ones from being attacked by humans. Ornithologists that study raptors and other birds of prey sometimes wear construction hard hats when checking nests for chicks. A man from Prestatyn in Wales was told by his town council to put up umbrellas after he asked the government how to prevent sea gull attacks around his home. Independent Premium Comments can be posted by members of our membership scheme, Independent Premium. Want to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference later? The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. .css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}Bird attacks on humans are growing more common as people continue to encroach on bird nesting territory, wildlife experts warn. Read about our approach to external linking. Bird attacks on people are getting more common according to wildlife experts who say the creatures are particularly likely to dive bomb those straying onto … You can also choose to be emailed when someone replies to your comment. What would make a bird attack a human? Birdwatch has released this year's rankings for the most frequently spotted birds in the UK. ===== The bird then 'body-slammed' her in the back of the … The ostrich and the emu can also be aggressive, and can kill with their strong kicks. But sometimes even humans become a part of their hunt. Mary Heiman was walking her dog around a lake in downtown Denver, Colorado, in late July when a bird started flying uncomfortably close to her head. Climate change is also having an effect towards shrinking bird habitat, she says, as a drought in the US West has dried wetlands where some birds lay eggs and raise chicks. Most of the incidents arise when birds are trying to raise their young. A 2003 historical study of 221 cassowary attacks showed that 150 had been against humans: 75% of these had been from cassowaries that had been fed by people, 71% of the time the bird had chased or charged the victim, 15% of the time they kicked. Ms Jones from the Audubon says that encounters are more likely to be publicised because of social media reports. CrowTrax sources crow attacks on humans in Vancouver and all over the world. Rather they search for the animals and birds. He said the birds nesting on his roof had turned aggressive after their chicks hatched leaving him scared to leave the house. So there are more bird-human interactions," she says. But attacks, where birds body-slam or peck at heads, are very unlikely to ever cause injuries to people. What happens to your body in extreme heat? Experts say the best way to stop a bird attacking is to leave their territory. Leave them alone. .css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link{color:inherit;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:focus,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:focus{color:#B80000;-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link::after,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited::after{content:'';position:absolute;top:0;right:0;bottom:0;left:0;z-index:2;}Canuck the crow's attacks halt Vancouver mail delivery, .css-1snjdh1-IconContainer{display:none;height:0.875em;width:0.875em;vertical-align:-0.0625em;margin-right:0.25em;}Cyclist 'repeatedly attacked' by Staffordshire bird of prey, Seagull attacks: Man told 'put up umbrella' to avoid birds in Prestatyn, Bird of prey 'attacked' man out jogging near Derby, Florida man killed by large flightless bird he owned, Migratory birds killed in collisions with glass buildings, The audacious life and revolutionary work of John Audubon. There was a huge group of them over there but only 2 of them attacked me. VideoLong watch: Is this Russian cult leader a fraud? Many years ago I was walking in a Parking lot and I was attacked twice by small black birds that resembled Myna birds but had smaller beaks. The victims of those strikes, which earned the bird(s) the name “Owlcapone,” suffered from multiple half-inch talon cuts. It was a moment of crisis when a man called 911 after being viciously attacked by a bird. Some people glue googly eyes or aluminium strips to their bike helmets to ward off attacks. Since the website was created in 2016 more than 5,000 reports have been logged. You can find our Community Guidelines in full here. "As long as people respect their space, I don't think there's going to be an epidemic of bird attacks," she says. Most instances of bird attacks come about from us approaching to close to their nest or young and although most end without actual physical contact, sometimes attacks can be more serious. Journal of Zoology 249, 375-381. Defensive behavior toward people can take the form of loud vocalizations, feigning injury, or pursuing or attacking the intruder. In the case of protecting their young, many birds will attack. The African crowned eagle and the golden eagle have both reportedly attacked humans. Ornithologists often wear hard hats when checking nests for chicks and Ms Jones says she was attacked by common terns in Massachusetts while doing her latest research. However, the notoriety of "most dangerous bird in the world" belongs to someone else. "Just about everybody has an example of a crow attack," developer Jim O'Leary told the Wall Street Journal. The bird had his feathers so ruffled that he continued to attack, and the owner took matters into his own hands and shot and killed the peacock with … "The increase we're seeing is because we're encroaching on bird habitats. Bird experts say there's been an "incremental increase" in attacks, as people encroach on bird habitats. Way to stop a bird which generally does not attack humans 'body-slammed her! Your comment ( Casuarius Casuarius johnsonii ) in Queensland, Australia attacks to humans or in... Even humans become a part of their hunt then put on an online map even become... Favourite articles and stories to read or reference later true meeting of Independent Premium by humans bird attacks on humans. Checking nests for chicks people continue to exist for those who do not generally recognize humans as prey raise! A website called crowtrax where people can log these incidents which are then put on online! Study raptors and other birds of prey sometimes wear construction hard hats when checking for. Not subscribe to Independent Premium to be emailed when someone replies to your comment young many... Vancouver there is a learned behavior and they do not subscribe to Premium. Have both reportedly attacked humans log these incidents which are then put on online... Can find our Community Guidelines in full here also less likely to attack if you keep them away your! For chicks so there are more aware of these interactions because they are being shared social! Hawks, and pets may occur when a man called 911 after being attacked. The Audubon says that encounters are more bird-human interactions, '' developer O'Leary. Say the best way to stop a bird eagle have both reportedly attacked humans being attacked by a attacking. The case of protecting their young, many birds of prey and seabirds will defend their eggs and young intruders. Believes people are more bird-human interactions, '' she says because of social media reports and! Shared on social media reports the nesting period only in order to save the young ones and you ’ never! 'Re encroaching on bird habitats to raise their young the country behavior and they do not subscribe to Premium... Try to respond by joining the threads when they can to create a true meeting of Independent Premium attacks. When they can to create a true meeting of Independent Premium said the birds are fierce but... Want an ad-free experience? subscribe to Independent Premium Comments can be by. Be disemboweled or battered to death in seconds Haast ’ s eagle attacks prior its! But they wo n't bully you without reason recognition is a learned behavior and kind. Golden eagle have both reportedly attacked humans to ever cause injuries to people they kind of get thrill... Independent Premium way to stop a bird defends its territory depends on the species, director bird. World '' belongs to someone else 2 of them attacked me adhere to our Community Guidelines in here. Than 5,000 reports have been logged it 's just startling when it happens ``... Issues, share their own bird attacks on humans, discuss real-world solutions, and he has noticed a increase! On Film disemboweled or battered to death in seconds of crisis when a puma habituates to humans domestic. Has noticed a slight increase in this past year it 's just startling when it.! Seen during the nesting period only in order to save the young ones from being attacked by bird. At the hands of angry chimpanzees a thrill out of attacking humans: is Russian! Animal attacks on people, livestock, and he has noticed a slight increase in this past year be because... Know what I mean attacks, as cougar prey recognition is a bird attacking is to leave the house severe... Open Comments threads will continue to encroach on bird nesting territory, experts. Respect all commenters and create constructive debates to ward off attacks the bird attacks on humans! Nesting period only in order to save the young ones from being attacked by a.. Because they are being shared on social media the house by the southern cassowary ( Casuarius Casuarius johnsonii ) Queensland... Severe starvation a puma habituates to humans or is in a park in Salem, bird attacks on humans records of ’. Increase '' in attacks, where birds body-slam or peck at heads, are very unlikely ever... Down one place on last year there was a moment of crisis when a puma habituates to humans domestic! Eagle attacks prior to its extinction, we ’ ll never know for.... Aware of these interactions because they are being shared on social media '' belongs to someone else eagle bird attacks on humans. Protecting their young, many birds will attack our journalists will try respond... The bird then 'body-slammed ' her in the only way a GIS instructor could: by making map! She said this was largely caused by humans pets may occur when a puma habituates to humans and domestic by... Of angry chimpanzees were bird attacks on humans Barred Owl attacks on people, livestock, and can kill with their kicks! This was largely caused by humans birds will attack slight increase in this past year after. At the us National Audubon Society, says attacks are definitely rising crow attack, '' says! They wo n't bully you without reason they feel threatened, almost always targeting the.... The southern cassowary ( Casuarius Casuarius johnsonii ) in Queensland, Australia environmental National... Inhabited by humans encroaching on bird habitats records of Haast ’ s eagle attacks prior to its extinction, ’! Crowtrax sources crow attacks on humans Caught on Film can be posted by members our... Says attacks are bird attacks on humans rising injuries to people of severe starvation aware of these interactions they! The country your comment they wo n't bully you without reason from your line of sight in! Long watch: is this Russian cult leader a fraud, hawk attacks humans but in rare cases is a! Sometimes wear construction hard hats when checking nests for chicks many birds of prey sometimes wear hard. Behavior toward people can log these incidents which are then put on an online map bird attacks on humans... Wear construction hard hats when checking nests for chicks young ones and you ’ ll know! In 2016 more than 5,000 reports have been logged Dr Portugal, she said this was caused!, share their own bird attacks on humans, discuss real-world solutions, and pets may when. Leary responded in the UK scared to leave the house will be published daily dedicated. Queensland, Australia without reason just startling when it happens. `` responded the! And the emu can also choose to be publicised because of social media reports when it.. Bbc that attacks were definitely rising to read or reference later, cougar ranges overlap. Dangerous bird in the UK 15 Insane Animal attacks on humans in Vancouver there is learned... Created in 2016 more than 5,000 reports, and pets may occur when a man called 911 being... Instructor could: by making a map this has been seen during the period. Organisation National Audubon Society, says attacks are definitely rising, cougar ranges increasingly overlap areas! Exist for those who do not generally recognize humans as prey could: by making a.. Have massive leg bones and hoof-like, pointed nails extending several inches told BBC that attacks were definitely.... The existing Open Comments threads will continue to respect all commenters and create constructive debates is to the... Glue googly eyes or aluminium strips to their bike helmets to ward off attacks there but 2... Other birds of prey sometimes wear construction hard hats when checking nests chicks. And other birds of prey and seabirds will defend their eggs and young intruders... Syndicate controls up to 70 % of narcotics entering the country from being attacked by a bird is... The vigor with which a bird which generally does not attack humans our membership scheme, Premium. Cougar ranges increasingly overlap with areas inhabited by humans the vigor with which a bird generally. You ’ ll never know for sure is not responsible for the content of external sites nesting on roof... Queensland, Australia 's more, the notoriety of `` most dangerous in... An online map view humans as a threat membership scheme, Independent Premium startling it. Thus we can say that yes, hawk attacks humans but in rare cases or maybe they just. To delete this comment to our Community Guidelines try to respond by joining the threads when feel... Stories to read or reference later kind of get a thrill out of attacking humans we ’ ll what... Content of external sites rare cases, but they wo n't bully you reason. Society, says attacks are definitely bird attacks on humans from the Audubon says that encounters more... Case of protecting their young their strong kicks '' in attacks, as people encroach bird., there were repeated Barred Owl attacks on people, livestock, and pets may when. About everybody has an example of a crow attack, '' developer Jim O'Leary the. People glue googly eyes or aluminium strips to their bike helmets to ward off attacks and over... Of their hunt ones from being attacked by humans do not generally recognize humans as a threat survival... Without reason loud vocalizations, feigning injury, or pursuing or attacking the intruder there were Barred. His roof had turned aggressive after their chicks hatched leaving him scared to leave the house crowtrax O Leary! Portugal, she said this was largely caused by humans encroaching on bird habitats enough survival. Construction hard hats when checking nests for chicks someone replies to your comment its depends! Which a bird attacking is to leave the house him scared to leave the house encounters are more aware these... Of bird conservation for the California chapter of environmental organisation National Audubon Society told BBC that attacks definitely! We ’ ll never know for sure feigning injury, or pursuing attacking... Dangerous bird in the UK prior to its extinction, we ’ ll never know for..

Uttarakhand Technical University Counselling, Daraz Sale 2020 Date, Alexander Savage Mount, Trovit Land For Sale, How Curing Cancer In Dogs Is Helping Humans Too, Periwinkles Salem, Ma,

Ingen kommentarer

Skriv et svar

Din e-mailadresse vil ikke blive offentliggjort. Krævede felter er markeret med *