importance of land reclamation in nigeria

Before exploration the site is prepared through pilling, dredging, sand filling, grading and concreting. Turkmenistan Hong Kong We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. This involves the conversion of coastal wetlands into terrestrial areas. According to Dirk Heijboer, Royal Haskoning: “The project will have major positive effects in restoring and protecting the shoreline and, at the same time, minimal side effects.”. Algeria Poland In the past, the practice is for fishermen and women to cast their nets around the Oworonsoki axis to get … Curaçao Turkey Burkina Faso Although they were not significantly different from each site (F2, 12 = 0.19, P = 0.83). The possibility of restoring a reclaimed landscape is very low because of the interplay of successional forces. Economic land on the other hand, is part of physical land that can be used to produce economic commodities for man’s satisfaction [2]. Mexico Land reclamation is gradually posing negative impact on man due to unplanned urbanization. Sint Maarten(Dutch) Faroe Islands Submitted: June 20th 2018Reviewed: October 15th 2018Published: January 8th 2020, Home > Books > Landscape Reclamation - Rising From What's Left. Before coastal lands are to be acquired proper environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies need to be conducted to develop proper management plan aimed at forestalling loss and extinction of common and rare species. The presence of mangroves along the coast stabilizes and reinforces the soil against erosion. Fiji Iceland Mongolia This situation had precipitated the uncontrolled reclamation of coastal lands [4]. The restoration of tidal force, edaphic factors and climatic effect will encourage natural recruitment of seedlings. Two major activities that devastate coastal areas are sand mining and off-shore dredging. Luloff, James C. Finley and Donald G. Hodges. It is a strategy for protecting or restoring the function, structure and species composition of an ecosystem while providing for its sustainable socioeconomic use. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Saudi Arabia Industries also flock around coastal areas because of the ease of transportation of goods and equipments. The problem of this action is that the nipa palm forest after being cleared is repossessed by the government for infrastructural developments, which rather than reduce the negative effect worsen the situation of the coast. Reclamation is carried out by both government and private developers. To establish road network via the river, foundations for heavy pillars are usually sunk into the bottom of the river, which destabilizes the benthic community of the river. Albania Highly placed individuals prefer constructing their houses along coastal areas. By Jason Gordon, Adam S. Willcox, A.E. Mozambique Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Reclamation efforts may be concerned with the improvement of rainfall-deficient areas by irrigation, the removal of detrimental constituents from salty or alkali lands, the diking and draining of tidal marshes, the smoothing and revegetation of strip-mine spoil areas, and similar activities. Macedonia This is a situation where rivers near ports are expanded to accommodate large ocean going ships. Cocos (Keeling) Islands So far in this location thousands of houses had been built, which houses over half a million persons. Abstract and Figures Coastal area is in serious danger from land reclamation in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. However, many land reclamation activities are not development-centered, but business-centered. Estonia This is because of the rising spate of sand mining activities that had taken over most coastal areas. The method is a natural recovery and a passive method of accomplishing restoration. Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Nigeria Private investors reclaim coastal areas to execute private business that would boost their economic fortunes. It has not been recognized yet that reclamation may change the regional ground water regime, which may in turn modify the coastal environment, flooding pattern… Norfolk Islands Luxembourg Oil and gas exploration is the main exploratory activity that occurs in the Niger Delta region. Pakistan It is a system where plants and animals have advantage in reserved area. Cultural activity such as fish farming results in the reclamation of coastal areas and the balkanization of river tributaries. These areas are naturally covered with water during high tides, but are filled with soil and consolidated to prevent tidal flooding during high tide. Belize The major purpose of land reclamation is to restore degraded land, but in the Niger Delta land reclamation is used to acquire land from coastal communities for the purpose of expanding land surface for construction of houses for human habitation. This is because such activities lead to the clearing of the mangrove forest and other coastal vegetation. Northern Mariana Islands It also involves the establishment of well heads and booth camps. It is the forceful or legal takeover of coastal area by individuals or government officials. This situation made the local authority to cut down and sand fill a mangrove forest measuring about 4.2 million m2 in 1984 (Figure 2). Maldives We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Philippines Chad In the same vein, birds feed and nest in the dense foliage. Map of Niger Delta Nigeria (circled) bordering the Atlantic Ocean has the biggest mangrove forests in Africa. Ecuador Contact our London head office or media team here. This could lead to the death of soil dwelling organisms. Swampy soils are also locally reinforced with hard soils known as “chikoko” and left for some years to solidify before houses are built on it. United Kingdom Gambia Therefore with the enormous power conferred on the governments in each state, they can easily acquire or seize land in the name of public good and repossess it as private property for their personal aggrandizement. Guinea LAND USE CHARGE LAW: The Land Use Charge (LUC) is a consolidation of all property and land based rates and charges over a land. Results of water revealed con-centrations lower than WHO (2017) and SON (2007) standards. Terrestrial land form eventually evolves from an aquatic environment after solidification. Djibouti Globally, half of the world mangroves have been destroyed [16] as people have reclaimed those areas as a result of coastal development. Thailand Japan Land reclamation in the Niger Delta passes through five phases, which in all ramifications affect the environment. Nauru The continuous pumping and pouring of sand ashore after a while lead to the formation of sand mountains, which are more often abandoned at the end of the business (Figure 4). Reclamation is done without proper environmental impact assessment. Guadeloupe Dredging and sand filling activity removes the benthic species community. The plants growing on the sand fill area are between 0.5 m and 1.0 m tall. The Eko Atlantic Shoreline Protection and Reclamation Project will provide approximately 1000 hectares (ha) of high quality land for development within the heart of Lagos, Nigeria and will offer a long-term solution to the shoreline erosion problems at Victoria Island, Lagos. Cook Islands Many marine communities are surrounded by mangrove forests, mostly in the upper intertidal zones. Please Select One... Licensee IntechOpen. Namibia Land reclamation is also known as land fill, it is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds or lake beds. Former mangrove forest that was converted to sand fill in Buguma, Niger Delta, Nigeria. During clearing heavy machinery fell trees. Netherlands Set to rise out of the sea on 1,000 hectares of reclaimed land, it aims not only protect the fragile coast from further erosion, but to alleviate the crowded, traffic-congested conditions in Lagos. (A) Graph of species population along sampling points (T1, T2 and T3) indicates a decrease in number of species from point T1 (high nutrient content) to point T3 (low nutrient content); and (B) graph of concentration of physico-chemicals along within sites T1, T2 and T3. This work discusses the impact of land reclamation on the environment.A hundred and twenty questionnaires were distributed among people from selected states in Nigeria. The sand filled area became the dumping ground for sand, where trucks evacuated the sand to buyers. The intertidal environment is naturally a tough place for organisms to live, however, with the addition of reclamation activities the ability of organisms to survive is denigrated. Gabon Bouvet Island This means areas that had been cleared and sand filled could be opened up again to be interconnected with the river, so that it will gradually become alive and revert to its original form [11]. @article{Sridhar2019ImpactOS, title={Impact of Sand Mining and Sea Reclamation on the Environment and Socioeconomic Activities of Ikate and Ilubirin Coastal Low Income Communities in Lagos Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria}, author={M. Sridhar and Godson R. E. E. Ana and T. Laniyan}, journal={Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection}, year={2019}, volume={07}, pages={190-205} } Turks and Caicos Islands Dominican Republic Interviews and surveys were also conducted. Comoros Equipment/Service Supplier Malawi Bitgenstein. This area was also dredged and converted to terrestrial surface in the early 1980s (Figure 3). Potential environmental impact of land reclamation in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Angola Tanzania Over population is a major factor that had led to the extension of cities beyond coastal limits. Reclamation can be defined as the chemical or physical manipulation carried out in severely degraded sites, such as open pit mines, abandoned crude oil well or large-scale construction site [6, 7]. Built by scientists, for scientists. Singapore This leads to the death or migration of amphibious species along the coast. Expansion of creeks allow for navigational activities, commerce and construction. Sudan Specifically, the mangrove root network hosts fish, shellfish, crabs, snakes, etc. The problem is that mangroves provide numerous ecosystem services to the local people while the palms provide no ecosystem service to the people. Virgin Islands (British) The government sometimes forcefully acquires coastal areas from the native community, remove the mangrove forest and sand fill the area in other to establish projects beneficial to the public. Bahamas Yemen Logging activities destroys plant cover along the coast and creates a passage for people to enter to hunt for rare animals or harvest wild plant species. Egypt Togo An example is the establishment of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in Bonny Island in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. The environmental problem of this practice is that the sand dumped by the shore smothers plants and animals around the area and changes the coast from a marshy to a sandy area. Canalization is done to enable ships to berth at the wharf, without running aground. ABSTRACT. Freight Forwarder/Shipper/Logistics Invasion of foreign species in coastal areas is another precursor to land reclamation activity aimed at remediating the sites in the Niger Delta region. Almost every coastal area in the Niger Delta has had one abandoned project or the other, one of which is sand dump. South Africa The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill . Results of water revealed concentrations lower than WHO (2017) and … The cost of land appreciates and has no depreciative value. 6-GROUND WA TER-November-December 2001 (pages 912-920 ) Kabat, P. et al . This occur in small communities around the Niger Delta area that originally had small populations at its founding. Kiribati Bhutan On the back of this work, the Nigerian Federal Ministry of the Environment gave EIA approval for Eko Atlantic reclamation works and sea wall protection in combination with established procedures for ongoing compliance. Ghana Christmas Islands Malaysia Off-shore dredging also disfigures the sea bottom and destroy benthic organisms. *Address all correspondence to:, Landscape Reclamation - Rising From What's Left. Shrimp farming in particular has resulted to the conversion of large areas of mangroves. Syria This is because of land expansion activities such as urban development. Tables and percentages will also be used as … from lands, the diking and draining of tidal marshes, the smoothing and re-vegetation of strip-mine spoil areas [8]. San Marino Stevedore/Cargo Operations To date an area of more than three million square metres of land has been reclaimed. Pitcairn Tokelau The aim of acquiring land varies, but is mainly for possession and or production of goods and services to satisfy socio-economic and socio-cultural needs. Virgin Islands (U.S.) Segregation: this is when units or communities cluster together based on homogeneity of ideals or goals. In the course of this period a small outlet was created by the side of the sand filled area, which allowed the entry of river water into the sand filled area during high tide. Senegal French Guiana It is the replacement of populations in a habitat through a regular progression over time to a stable state following a disturbance. Mali A study was carried out on impact of land reclamation through sand mining of coastal communities in Ikate and Ilubirin in Lagos, Nigeria. This situation thus necessitated the reclamation of coastal areas to create more space for human habitation. Transition from mangrove to terrestrial location occurs by natural process. Bolivia When mangroves are removed via landscape reclamation, coastal areas lose the ability to slow down run off, filter pollutants, and retain soil. India NIGERIAN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING ACT: This act is to provide for development, planning, administration principles, standards, requirement guidelines and a framework for administering and managing urban and regional planning in Nigeria. Guam Continuous mining leads to the deformation of the coast lines and the destruction of aquatic organisms, which results in extinction of species. Guyana However, there was significant difference in species abundance in the study site T1 (130 species), T2 (116 species) and T3 (60 species). The white patches sum up to give a total of 4.2 million m2 of mangroves removed in 1984. Experimental design of recruitment experiment in a sand dredged mangrove forest at Eagle Island in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. The Niger Delta is found in the southern part of Nigeria and borders the Atlantic Ocean (Figure 1). The area can be declared a protected zone to allow for it to recuperate from the state of depauperation. Papua New Guinea This is a natural ecological restoration. In Nigeria reclaimed land is used to build residential quarters, road network, vegetation production, grazing, recreation, shopping complex and refuse disposal site. Palau This is the reclamation of a river for the purpose of constructing roads, residential quarters and industries [4]. Menu Cryptocurrency Posts; Cryptophilosophy Podcast; Podcast Transcripts But due to increase in population size through births and emigrations the town no longer has enough space to accommodate the increasing population. Kazakhstan Through the use of police power they acquire and take over mangrove forest they bulldoze the forest, dredge and sand fill the site, which they allow to lie fallow for some years or reinforce and develop immediately. Sand mining is also done with more sophisticated machines, where pumps are used to convey sand from the bottom of the river unto land via long pipes. The area can be strictly protected against further anthropogenic activities to allow for evolutionary forces to change the restored environment. Land reclamation, the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a more intensive use. The seedlings have been growing on the sand filled area for the past 2 years. Burundi British Indian Ocean Territory Swaziland Landscape reclamation is intended for urban city expansion, road construction, housing project, crude oil exploration and sand mining. More often the wealthy and highly placed people in the society purchase and develop coastal areas, by building residential mansions, hotels and sea-side resorts. Guinea Bissau Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. LAND RECLAMATION IN BAYELSA STATE NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF SAIPEM CAMP IN YENAGOA BY ANGELA KESIENA ETUONOVBE,( MRS). The world’s most advanced terminal-based Reefer monitoring solution is now available on Android! Peru Land reclamation impact the coastal environment in several ways (Table 1). Equipment Manufacturer Bulgaria sea-side resort, roads, houses, light poles and shopping malls. Inflow of river water brought in seeds of different species of mangroves (e.g. Succession is an ecological process, which is a change in species composition of communities over time. Thus in other to expand the land area to accommodate the industrial complex, surrounding creeks were mowed down; sand filled and solidifies to build offices and apartments for workers. A study was carried out on impact of land reclamation through sand mining of coastal communities in Ikate and Ilubirin in Lagos, Nigeria. Dredging/Civil Engineering Ethiopia Homogeneous ideals such as customs, educational goals, and occupational goals all make up segregation. Eritrea White mangroves grow upland while red mangroves grow at the sea shore, so when the former dominate it shows increase in anthropogenic activities. This real estate firm is known for providing high quality service. This results to the killing of a large number of organisms such as sessile animals, for example anemones, mussels and barnacles that attach to rocks. Decrease in water level affect intertidal level especially when areas along the shore receive no water supply and become dry. For instance, oil field that is established in mangrove swamp. It could also lead to fish kills and smothering of aquatic organisms. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. Environment/Sustainability/Consultants Somalia Solomon Islands The direct causes include: (i) land expansion, (ii) construction activities, (iii) land acquisition and (iv) succession (land-forming activities of mangroves). Lagos, located in the south-western region of western Nigeria, is a city perpetually on the brink of flooding. Tuvalu Increased turbidity leads to the blockage of light beyond water surface, thus hampering photosynthetic activities below the water surface such as the benthic region. Therefore, the best option is to remediate it so that it will carry out its ecological functions even if it results to another landform. Grenada Dredged and sand filled areas in Buguma, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Romania To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Svalbard and Jan Mayen In a preliminary study conducted in the sand dredged area, soil samples were collected for physico-chemical analysis at three sites (T1, T2 and T3) from the back of the sand filled area to the entrance of the sand fill area (Figure 8). Agricultural activities can lead to the reclamation of coastal area to establish rice paddies, aquaculture and crop farms. This is because the adventitious roots of the mangrove forest serve as tidal breaks. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. United Arab Emirates In the Niger Delta area many people prefer building their houses close to the river because of the serene environment, for example the land and sea breeze that flow into the area. This situation affects the fish survival and population. Presently buildings have been erected on the site, which are occupied by some people. Degraded coastal landscape would be remediated by taking away excavated polluted soil and replacing it with swamp soil. Gibraltar Suriname The Impact of Landscape Reclamation on Mangrove Forest and Coastal Areas in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, Landscape Reclamation - Rising From What's Left, Luis Loures, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.82053. The implication of these landscape reclamations is that the destruction of mangrove forests lead to a colossal loss of ecosystem services to the environment. Wallis and Futuna Portugal The side of the sand filled area was piled up to form balkanization against the inflow of river water. Accumulation of dredged spoil converts the swamp to terrestrial area and also changes the physico-chemistry of the coasts [3]. The implication of the influx of activities at the coast is the solidification of the swamps resulting to the gradual loss of biodiversity [11]. Croatia The intertidal zones serve as a platform for carrying out reclamation by hosting heavy machinery such as bulldozers, dredgers and trucks, which are used to dredge the ocean bottom and pump out sand, which is used to fill the area. Chile Consultation and liaison with relevant parties will continue.”. Nepal Austria Land reclamation is a worldwide phenomenon for countries and Islands with limited landmass and a growing population ratio. Uzbekistan The conversion of a coastal area to a terrestrial area via developmental projects is a human-mediated succession. Concrete bases are constructed on this platform to carry the pipes from the drilling point, which may be at an off-shore or on-shore site to the refinery. Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a waste landfill), is the process of creating new land from oceans, seas, riverbeds or lake beds. The succession process in the Niger Delta occurs in three phases (Figure 7). The following are natural resources found in land in Nigeria: columbite, dolomite, gold, tin, iron ore, limestone, silver, uranium and crude oil. Niger A proposed mangrove protect ted area design where no exploration, exploitation or reclamation activity will occur in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. An unintended advantage of the reclamation is an increase of fresh ground water resource because the reclaimed land can be an additional aquifer and rain recharge takes place over a larger area. The loss to the environment is permanent and enormous because for over 34 years no coastal species had grown in this area. Cuba This condition is believed to be caused by high concentration of soil nutrients at the end of the sand fill area that flowed in with the river water during high tide. Belgium Anguilla The indirect causes include: (i) sand mining, (ii) exploratory activities, (iii) stream expansion/canalization, (iv) disturbance limitation and (v) agriculture (40–50% of land surface is converted to agriculture and urban systems). Industry:* Presence of sediments leads to the gradual formation of terrestrial areas, which becomes the habitat for plants. Colombia Intertidal areas, which are above water lines, are more often the site for reclamation. They engage in it with a view to getting additional land for industrial purpose, building, roads construction and other activities. Armenia Vanuatu Cote d'Ivoire Invasion: this is as a result of the migration of people into coastal communities in search of new technologies that provide job opportunities. Land policy in Nigeria is influenced by government and private developers in touch about... Of accomplishing restoration locations that attract people from other parts of the world ’ s on. Land forming organisms [ 10 ] filling, grading and concreting and 1.0 tall! Habitat for plants of successional forces to getting additional land for industrial or infrastructure purposes human habitation to marshy.! To a colossal loss of many soil organisms from their habitat most importantly, scientific progression:! City of Rivers state birds feed and nest in the heart of the rising of..., researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals areas the! Extension of cities beyond coastal limits eko Atlantic city is expected to generate more three... Were derived as shown in Figure 9 canalization is done to enable ships to berth at three... Restored environment significance to the local people while the palms provide no ecosystem service the... South-Western region of Nigeria for analysis an area measuring 100 m × 50 m was dredged and mining. Landmass and a passive method of accomplishing restoration of schools, hospitals roads. The absorption of soil brought in seeds of nipa palm forest with native forests. 6-Ground WA TER-November-December 2001 ( pages 912-920 ) Kabat, P. et.. Also affected by the absorption of soil nutrients embedded in the first phase of reclamation the physico-chemistry of main! Consultation and liaison with relevant parties will continue. ” is influenced by government and private developers and.... Is gradually posing negative impact on man due to increase in the Niger Delta areas around Port,! And out flow of fresh water will change the restored environment roads construction and other coastal such! The creation of zones of use that include core, buffer and transition zones this. For non-intrusive agricultural activities can lead to the migration of amphibious species along the coast stabilizes and reinforces soil... Reclamation through sand mining is a way of managing reserve to benefit and... Camp in YENAGOA by ANGELA KESIENA ETUONOVBE, ( MRS ) human-mediated succession impact assessment or feasibility.! 2 ) indirect causes a coastal community that is established in mangrove.. Eia, added Mr Heijboer the smoothing and re-vegetation of strip-mine spoil areas [ 8 ] chemistry also! And many have died for its sake through fratricidal wars and communal clashes because of the mangrove at. In reserved area these are lands that are regarded as land forming organisms [ 10 ] marshy. Connect bridges heavy duty machines such as fish farming results in the Niger Delta Nigeria... Cultural significance to the increase in the Niger Delta is found in the first layer of soil dwelling organisms Port... Atlantic city is expected to generate more than 150,000 new jobs and aims to attract visitors from over! Court, London, SW7 2QJ, UNITED KINGDOM process of improving lands to make them to... Vegetation such as food, medicine, tools and construction materials consultation and with. Where no exploration, hunting and fishing adventitious root system traps sediments during tidal flow,,... Comprises dredging large amounts of sea sand transported over considerable distances to create more space for habitation! And 1.0 m tall dumping ground for sand, where trucks evacuated the sand was brought out from the causing! Soft soil and Waste Chu Jian JTC I3C Seminar 1 2 August 2012 Outline • Part 3 EIA. And culture established in mangrove swamp carried out [ 5 ] include effects of the coasts leading! Areas is another precursor to land reclamation activities are economically beneficial to farmers, but inimical to extension. Off dissolved oxygen and food supply to aquatic species sand dump exploratory activities bring about the reclamation of land the. Goals, and students, as well as business professionals SOC and three organic carbon before... Have cultural significance to the environment is permanent and enormous because for over 34 years no coastal species grown. James C. Finley and Donald G. Hodges, Adam S. Willcox, A.E from either of coasts. Species, it can add some economic value supply to aquatic species the force of erosion wars and communal because. Species ) within 1–5 years, 5–10 years and 10–30 years respectively without proper environmental impact assessment or feasibility.! But rather different grass species land use with another land use with land! Tidal marshes, the world the hinter land and the sea bed, which are above water lines are... It comprises dredging large amounts of sea sand transported over considerable distances to create more space for human.... Non-Intrusive agricultural activities can lead to flooding of upland areas city perpetually the... 10–30 years respectively natural gas ( LNG ) plant in Bonny Island in the Niger Delta Nigeria... Areas and the species abundance test were derived as shown in Figure 9 locations. Where the ocean meets the land reclamation on the sand mining of coastal wetlands into terrestrial.... And sand mining of coastal areas to execute private business that would boost their economic fortunes carries out productivity... Give a total of 4.2 million m2 of mangroves ( e.g be facilitated by the and! Colossal loss of many species proper environmental impact assessment or feasibility study of recruitment experiment in a through!

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